The criminal justice system (CJS) as it operates in law (based primarily on the Criminal Procedure Code 1898 – CrPC) is depicted in the chart below. The system was constituted under British colonial rule (1700-1947). The population growth (with census data from 1891 and 2011) appears first and is set against the amendments made to key penal laws (Penal Code 1860 and CrPC) over this time. Red dots represent amendments to the Penal Code and green, to the CrPC. The Evidence Act 1872 has not been amended substantively since enactment.