Most prisons were operating in excess of their official capacity on 31 December 2016 (map 1). A prison, like a bus, may have a capacity for 100 prisoners, but between January to December, five-ten times (500-1000) the capacity may enter or leave. This ‘turn-over’ rate is measured in map 2. Most under-trial prisoners (UTP) are released on bail pre-trial. The data in map 3 raise questions as to why some wait longer than others before they are released. The proportion of prisoners under-trial or convicted for drugs offences appears in map 4. The impact of overcrowding is illustrated in the number of prisoners per external toilet (measured against the International Committee of the Red Cross’ recommendation – 25 : 1) – in map 5. The rate / use of imprisonment in a country is generally measured as: number of prisoners per 100,000 citizens (final map).